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Салон штор - салон.бел
Шторы - calon.by

Hackers, as the subjects of computer crime
Категория: English version

For some, hacking and attempt to understand the stolen information entertainment for other businesses. They may be months "knock" in private passwords, copy-protection systems "door" networks or computers of individuals re ¬ biraya simple words as a password. And it is not so silly as it sounds (at least it was until recently). There are a few more satisfied ¬ but simple and effective means of illegal connections to remote computers. In this case, the entire treatises written, they can be found in unlimited quantities on the Internet - the worldwide global computer network. Unauthorized access to files legitimate user carried ¬ schestvlyaetsya also finding weaknesses in the protection system. Once they found, the violator may be slowly explored in the system ¬ subject information, copy it, go back to it many times as ¬ Patel buy the goods in shop windows or the reader chooses a book, looking at the shelves of libraries. Programmers sometimes make mistakes in the programs that are not found in the process of debugging. This creates possibilities for finding a "BRAY ¬ Shea." Authors large complex programs may not notice some SLA ¬ bostey logic. Vulnerabilities sometimes found in the electronic circuits. Usually they did detected in verification, editing, debugging program, but it is absolutely impossible to get rid of them. It happens that programmers deliberately doing "gaps" for future use. Receiving a "gap" can be developed. In found (created) "gap" program "broken" and go further Insert one or more commands. The "hatch" open "to the extent necessary, and built the team automatically ¬ ki carry out their task. Most often, this project is receiving ¬ tantami systems and employees of organizations involved in prevention and repair systems. More rarely - those self-discover "gaps". It happens that someone enters into a computer system, giving themselves a legitimate user. Systems that do not have the means Au ¬ tentichnoy identification (for example, physiological characteristics: the fingerprints, designed by retina, voice, etc.), find themselves without protection against the reception. The easiest way to implement it - to get codes and other identifying codes of legitimate users. Here ways - great variety, ranging from simple fraud. Sometimes happens, for example, with the wrong telephone call ¬ world that the user network from a remote computer connects to someone's system, being absolutely sure that it works with the system, how and intends. The owner of the system, which actually connect, forming a plausible responses can maintain this delusion for some time and thus get some information, in particular code. In any computer center has a special program used as a systematic tool in the event of a malfunction or other o ¬ loneny in the computer, a kind of analog devices placed in transport under the caption "Split glass in the event of an accident." Such pro ¬ Decent - a powerful and dangerous tool in the hands of the attacker.
Most recently, in our country have set up institutions of higher education to train professionals in the field of information security. Unauthorized access can be carried out and as a result of systemic failure. For example, if some user files remain ¬ are open, he can not gain access to portions of its data bank. Everything happens as if bank customer into the allocated ¬ lennuyu him in the store room, observes that the store is not one wall. In this case, it may enter into other people's safes and steal everything in their stores. Also, under the concept of "unauthorized access" are particularly such as the issuance of software "logic bombs" that CPA ¬ batyvayut if certain conditions and partly or wholly incapacitate a computer system. Method "Trojan horse" is the secret introduction of foreign pro ¬ Decent such commands that allow a new, is not planning ¬ vavshiesya owner of the program functions, but at the same time preserve and earlier works. With the help of "Trojan horse" criminals, for example, pay at their own expense certain amount from each transaction. In fact, everything is quite simple: Computer software texts are usually extremely complex. They consist of hundreds of thousands and sometimes millions of commands. Therefore, "troyans ¬ cue horse" of the several dozen teams could hardly be found, unless, of course, there is no suspicion about this. But in the latter case, the expert programmers take many days and weeks to find him. Turning to the history of computer crime. Here, in particular, clearly leads the U.S. because this country is the mass emergence of computer technology. About Russia talk is premature because it is, in my view, just embarking on the thorny path of universal "computerization", and the opportunity to commit a crime in this area in our country is somewhat less, or sometimes they do not make sense. An interesting case of "Trojan horse" one amerikans ¬ Kim programmer. He inserted into the computer company where workers ¬ Tal, the team did not otchislyayuschie money, and not to print outlet for ¬ couple of certain revenue. These amounts, specially marked ¬ WIDE, "existed only in the system. Ukrainian BLANC ¬ ki, he filled them with an indication of its clandestine marking and received the money, and such transactions are still not printed and could not be subjected to audit.
There is another kind of "Trojan horse". Its particular feature ¬ toit that bezobidno-looking part of the program is not inserted commands actually doing all the work directly. A team, formed ¬ ing these commands, and after following the crushing them. In this case, pro ¬ rammistu, trying to find a "Trojan horse", must be sought not his own, and commands his form. Building on that idea, it is possible to imagine a team that created the team, etc. (arbitrarily large number of times), which pose a "Trojan horse".
I reviewed a large number of articles (mostly in electronic journals) about the problems of computer hacking, drew the attention of the fact that no one article no one edge, which in our view, clearly shared by everyone, one way or another related to computer security . Basically, the computer world opinion on this matter either purely negative (hackers - are criminals), or - modestly-positive (hackers - "orderlies Forest"). In fact, the problem exists, at least two parties: one positive, the other - negative and between them runs a clear boundary. This border shared by all the professionals associated with information security, the hackers (hackers) and crackers (crackers). They both, in many ways, dealing with the same tasks - finding vulnerabilities in computer systems and implementing attacks on these systems ( "hacking"). But the most important and fundamental difference between hackers and cracker is in order, they are. The main objective of a hacker, studying computer system to detect weaknesses (vulnerabilities) in its security system to inform users and developers of the system for removing discovered vulnerabilities. Another challenge hackers to analyze the current security of computer systems, to formulate the necessary requirements and conditions for enhancing its security. On the other hand, the main task of the cracker is to direct the implementation of hacking a system for the purpose of obtaining unauthorized access to others' information - in other words, for theft, or substitute for the announcement of the burglary. In other words, a cracker, at its core, or more than those of the thief, break other people's apartments and furtive wrong things. The cracker same prize strangers computing systems and steal others' information. This is the crucial difference between those who are the hackers and cracker: the first - computer security researchers, the second - just crackers, thieves and vandals. In doing so, hacker, in that terminology - that is, by definition, a specialist. As evidence of this are defined in the dictionary Guy L. Steele:
HACKER (susch.)
This interpretation of the term "hacker" is different from taking in the media, which, actually, and led to the substitution of concepts. Recently, many computer security specialists have begun neat treat these terms.
Depression motives crackers leads to the fact that 9 out of 10 of them are "Teapot" to break poorly administrated system primarily through the use of other people's programs (typically these programs are called exploit). (And this view is the same 10% of professional crackers). Such professionals - ex-hackers, who in the way of violation of the law. They, unlike crackers - "Dummies", is indeed very difficult to stop, but it turned out, is not impossible. It is clear that in order to prevent possible hacking or eliminate its effects needed to invite skilled information security - a professional hacker.
However, it would be unfair to mix in a bunch of crackers, unequivocally calling them thieves and vandalami. In our view, all the crackers can be divided into three classes, depending on the purpose for which the hacking: vandals, "joker" and professionals.
Vandals - best known (thanks in large part to everyday viruses, as well as the works of some journalists) and, I should say, the smaller of crackers. Their main objective - to crack the system for its destruction. These include, first, fans of teams type: rm-f-d *, del *.*, format c: / U, etc., and, secondly, specialists in writing viruses or Trojan horses. It is only natural that the whole computer world hates crackers, vandals lyutoy hatred. This stage is usually characterized by krakerstva for beginners and quick passes, if a cracker able to improve (it is rather boring to realize its superiority over the helpless users). Crackers that even with the passage of time nor passed this stage, but more and more to improve their skills destruction, other than social psychopath, does not call.
"joker" - the most harmless of crackers (of course, depending on how evil they prefer jokes), the main purpose of which - fame, achieved by hacking computer systems and making it different effects, expressing their dissatisfaction with a sense of humor. "Joker" usually do not cause significant damage (perhaps moral). To date, the Internet is the most common class of crackers, usually engaged in hacking Web - servers, leaving a reference to himself. The "prankster" also include the creators of viruses, with different visual sound effects (music, tremor or overturning the screen, drawing all kinds of pictures, etc.). All that, in principle, either innocent spree beginning, or - promotions professionals.
crackers - professional cracker, enjoying the highest honor and respect in krakerskoy environment, the main task of which - hacking into a computer system with serious goals, whether it be theft or substitution of the information stored there. In general, to carry out hacking system must go through three basic stages: a study of computer systems to identify flaws in it, the development program implementation of the attack and its immediate implementation. Naturally, this professional can take a cracker, which is to achieve its goal passes all three stages. In some natyazhkoy also can be considered a professional of the cracker, which is extracted using a third person information about vulnerabilities in the system, writes software implementation of this vulnerability. Implement third phase, obviously, can, in principle, each using someone else's design. But what are engaged crackers - this is an ordinary theft, if apart from the subject of theft. Unfortunately, we in Russia are not so simple. In a country where most of the software used by each user, is pirated, that is stolen is not without the help of the same cracker, almost no one has a moral right "to throw their stones." Of course, hacking computer systems in order to steal should not be called a dignified affair, but also blame crackers, crackers busy Only those who have legally purchased all the software used.

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