The method of committing the crime consists of a set of specific actions the offender to prepare, commit and hide the crime. Typically, perpetrators of these acts, left some traces, which in effect allows to restore the picture of what happened, learn about svoeobrazii criminal conduct of the offender, his personal data.
Domestic forensic science has become seriously pursue the issue features ways of committing computer crimes only in the early 90-ies. In this regard, we are lagging behind foreign researchers from nearly 20 years. In my opinion, our researchers need to use the experience of foreign counterparts.
Currently there are over 20 major ways of committing computer crimes, and about 40 varieties of them. And their number is constantly growing. I will highlight 5 major groups of ways of committing computer crimes. Classifies feature - the method of any criminal action to gain access to computer technology with different intentions.
Withdrawal of computer equipment
These include the traditional ways of committing «of non» crimes in which the offender is, simply put, removes off the property. Alien property - means of computer technology. This group of crimes can be attributed, for example, the illegal seizure of private carriers, which is valuable information. Such ways of committing computer crimes adequately studied Russian forensic science, so you can not focus on this group.
Methods based on the offender to receive data through a certain interception. The types of interdictions:
Connecting directly to your computer hardware, system or network. For example, the line printer or a telephone line.
The connection is carried out using household tools and equipment: phone, a section of the wires, etc. intercepted information stored on physical media and transferred to the anthropoid form of computer technology.
This remote Interception of. It does not require a direct connection to the computer equipment. The method is based on the establishment of a receiver, which receives electromagnetic waves. And if configure this receiver on a certain frequency, you can take, for instance, waves, which emits screen. Without going into the foundations of physics, saying that the principle of cathode-ray tube (kinescope monitor). This way you can receive signals from great distances.
This is the most dangerous way to intercept information. He is installing a special listening devices ( «zhuchok»). These devices are very difficult to detect because they are cleverly disguised as a normal thing. Audioperehvat also may be carried out using expensive laser systems that can take sound vibrations, for example, the window glass. This method used, mostly professional criminals.
This method is the use of criminal videoopticheskoy technology to intercept information. The method has two varieties. The first - physical, is to use various criminal videoopticheskih household appliances (telescopes, binoculars, night vision). The information can be recorded on physical media. In the second case, the offender uses a special electronic devices that require the presence of various channels of communication. The devices consist of a transmitter and receiver. You can understand that the transmitter is in the right room and transmits the signals received at the receiver, which is in the hands of criminals. This method is called videoperehvata electronically. It would also criminalize the use of digital cameras, video recorders with a recording time, etc.
This method of committing computer crime is a criminal misuse of waste production process. It takes two forms: physical and electronic. In the first case, the offender examines the contents of the trash, capacity for technological waste collects abandoned or discarded physical storage media. Regarding the electronic version, it requires viewing the contents of your computer for more information. The fact is that the last recorded data were not always completely erased from memory. There are special programs that can partially or completely restore the data on your computer. The offender, using such a program could get the necessary information (destruction from the perspective of the user). It should be noted that this is due to the negligence of the user who does not comply with all actions to complete destruction of data.
The third group of ways of committing computer crimes include criminal acts aimed at obtaining unauthorized access to computer technology. These include:
«For the fool».
Offenders in this case are internal users of a system. Using this method, the offender gets unauthorized access to computer technology through a direct connection to them. Log in using the telephone wiring. The crime is committed when a staff member who is responsible for the operation of computer hardware, briefly leaving his job, leaving the equipment in the active mode. As this method is based on low vigilance staff of the organization.
When a criminal gets access to a computer, he could not immediately obtain his data, as well as the useful information is usually put password. Using this method, the perpetrator makes the selection code. For this purpose, use special programs that are using high-speed computer perebirayut all possible password. If the offender knows the password, access code or not, access is obtained much faster. In considering this method of committing computer crimes, it is necessary to say that there are many programs that break the password access. But there are also programs - «watchman», which disables the user of the system in the event of multiple incorrect access. The programs I'll cover later. They became criminals used a different method - the method of «intelligent selection». In this case, the program - «cracker» handed over some data on the identity of the originator password (names, interests, phone numbers, etc.), obtained by the offender in other ways of committing computer crimes. Because of such data is usually compiled passwords, the effectiveness of this method is high enough. An estimated by the method of «intelligent selection» opened 42% of the total number of passwords.
This method is finding the perpetrator of weaknesses in the protection of computer systems. When a place is found, the perpetrator copies the necessary information on physical media. This method is so named because the search for weaknesses made a long and very thorough.
In this case, the offender is looking for a specific program with errors. Such «gap» used by the perpetrator repeatedly, until discovered. The point is that programmers sometimes make mistakes when developing software. Such errors could later find only highly qualified professionals. Sometimes the same programmers deliberately do such «gap» with the aim of preparing to commit a crime.
When criminals are «gap», he could enter there a few commands. These commands work at certain times or under certain conditions, thus forming a «hatch», which was called on as needed.
Using this method the offender is in the computer system, giving themselves a legitimate user. The easiest way to enter into such a system - to get the codes of legitimate users. This can be obtained through bribery, extortion, etc., or using the method «computer board», discussed above.
A user who connects to a system whose normally sure that he communicates with him subscriber fit. These criminals, who correctly answers the questions deceive the user. While the user is in error, the offender can receive the necessary information (access codes, response to a password, etc.).
This method of committing computer crimes characterized the fact that the offender to gain unauthorized access using programs that are on the computer. Usually this program, which is responsible for «Health» computer. They cope with setbacks and other deviations in the computer. This program requires immediate access to critical data. Thanks to them, the offender may enter the system with them.
«Warehouse without walls».
In this case, the offender enters the system during breaks down the computer. At that time violated protection system.
A fourth group of ways of committing computer crimes, I respect the group of data manipulation and control command of computer technology.
The substitution of data.
The most popular way to commit a crime because it is simple. The actions of criminals while aimed at amendments or new data. This is done with the input-output data. For example, bank accounts, you can add the amounts that are not credited, and then get the money. There have been instances where this method was applied by members of refueling stations, which changed records by partial damage to physical media. As a result, almost impossible to determine how much gasoline was sold.
This is also a very popular way to commit a crime. It is the introduction of criminals in off special software programs. These programs are beginning to take on new actions that were not envisaged legal owner of the means of computer technology. In accordance with Article 273 of the Criminal Code, under a program meant «program for computers, leading to unauthorized destruction, blocking, modifying or copying information, a violation of the mainframe computer system or network». «Trojan horse» indeed something like «hatch». The difference is that «Trojan horse» does not require the direct involvement of the offender, the program does everything herself. Usually it is used by criminals for contributions to advance open a certain amount per transaction. Then I'll cover some types of the program.
This kind of «Trojan horse». Assumes a self-destruct program from someone else's software after fulfilling its task.
This method is based on the speed of computer technology. The problem is that when commercial transactions finite amounts are rounded. The residual amount so small that does not take into account. The accumulation of funds taking place at the expense of criminal charges amounts to many operations.
This method uses the offender, when I am sure that a certain circumstance. The method is a secret to making false software special teams, which will be triggered under certain circumstances. Variety of this method is «temporary bomb». As you can guess, this program is included on reaching any time.
This program, which spontaneously align themselves with other programs and when you start last performed various undesirable activities (damage files and directories, distortion and destruction of information, etc.). This method of committing computer crimes the most popular. Currently, there are many types of computer viruses (over 4000). But all of them can be divided into several groups:
Boot viruses. Infection occurs when the computer starts with the media containing the virus. Infect vehicle itself quite easily. At a virus can get if you put it in the receiver included an infected computer. However, the virus automatically injects into the internal structure of the media.
File viruses. They affect executable files: EXE, COM, SYS, BAT. These viruses infect your computer, if it was running a program that already contains a virus. In this case continues infecting other programs, in fact reminiscent of viral infection. First, the emergence of the virus almost impossible to fix because it is infected, not all the required programs. Further violations occur in the computer, the degree of which depends on the type and the type of virus. Most viruses are not destructive nature, as written by programmers enthusiasts. This is not true about another part of viruses, which are written by professional programmers, often with ax to grind. To study the viruses set up a special science - computer virology. From the standpoint of science that viruses can be divided into resident and non-resident, «low» and «broken».
resident and non-resident
First, we need to define the resident program. Resident called the program, which leaves at the end of its code to the RAM on your computer. Random access memory - is memory, which is executable at this time programs and operational necessity for this data. Resident program works alongside other programs. And if the virus enters the computer's RAM, it actually infects all programs, which operate in parallel. Resident virus, leaving its code into RAM, renewed each time the computer. Less dangerous are non-resident viruses. They left in memory smaller programs that do not have the algorithm spread of the virus. This virus kills you switch off the computer.
«Low» and «broken» Viruses
This division produced by the algorithm structure and detection of a virus. «Low» viruses written by one unit and easily detected by using special anti-virus software, which I'll cover later. Regarding the «piecemeal» virus, it must be said that this program is divided into parts. These parts have nothing in common with each other, but they are «going» under certain conditions in quite a healthy virus. In carrying out its mission of this virus breaks or samounichtozhaetsya.
Next, I consider the most popular viral update:
Viruses-«Worms». These viruses do not affect the program files. They enter the computer memory of the computer network, and calculate the addresses of other computers. Then, discovered computers distributed copies of the virus.
«Parasitic». These include viruses that are sure to change the program files.
«Student». Usually it is viruses that are written amateurs. These viruses contain many mistakes, and are easily detectable by special programs.
This is enough of viruses. They are difficult to detect anti-virus program and can not be seen during normal viewing files, because when you open an infected file, they immediately removed from it, but when you close again infect.
Viruses-«ghosts». It is also difficult to detect viruses. The point is that they are infected with the program, constantly changing its code (content). So in all infected programs can not notice any overlap. Therefore, these viruses are difficult to detect using anti-virus programs based on this principle.
The last two groups of viruses represent the greatest danger. This problem makes Virology deviate from the standard anti-virus software and find other ways to combat viruses.
To understand this method of committing computer crimes should be given the notion of operating system. Operating System - a set of software tools for IT management processes in the operation of a computer system. The main objective of the operating system - maximizing the productivity of your computer. Options: management, communication, planning, etc. It is clear that such a set of programs is very large structure, composition and size. The development of operating systems involved in professional programmers sometimes for several years. Therefore, operating systems can not be verified at full efficiency. Ingenious criminal could make the necessary adjustments to the operating system and make it work for their own purposes. Such changes will notice quite difficult. Contributions command will be performed simultaneously with user commands.
This method of committing computer crimes is a simulation of behavior device or system through the software. For example: «double» bookkeeping. Here, at the same time there were two bookkeeping program, one of which operates in a lawful regime, and the other - in the illegal. Through the program illegal conduct shadow transactions.
This method of committing a crime is an illegal copy of software criminal information computer technology. The offender illegally copied information on its physical media, and then uses it for their own purposes. This method is available because of its simplicity. For example: Two people enter into a contract to develop software. The customer pays with a certain amount of work. Artist simply copy the program from any source, giving her for her and gives her employer.
Overcoming the software protection.
It is rather a subsidiary way to commit a crime. It is an intentional bridge protection system. There are several varieties of this method:
Creating a copy of the key diskettes.
For zapuskaniya some systems require a key diskette. On this disk recorded the necessary operating system files. The offender may be illegal to copy a floppy disk using the well-known programs DISKCOPY. Later, it will help the offender to get to the desired system.
Modifying the code protection system.
ID protection system in the computer performs the following functions:
Checking key diskette
Checking authorizing launch a protected resource
Modifying the code, the offender simply bypassed these functions. That is happening bypassing protection system. This method can be applied only to highly skilled professionals with experience in this regard. Time circumvent the protection system can run for weeks.
The use of machinery installation (of withdrawal) software to protect information.
Some software installed on the physical protection of media and held it together with other data. So it is impossible to copy from such media. In this case, the offender performs a certain algorithm of action and removes protected programs with the media. This process requires considerable knowledge and experience of the offender.
The withdrawal of the protection of computer memory.
Security system to periodically download protected software into RAM to transfer the management of the program code protection. When the code is still not taking the administration itself, the memory is quite Bare program. The criminals still retain it in some file.
In conclusion, this chapter would like to say that the ways of committing computer crime is becoming more and more. This occurs when improvements in computer technology. It is hoped that this problem will further explore the domestic criminology, as well as for research on the existence of different ways of committing computer crime known only about 10% of respondents.
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